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65 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
anastomosis
a communication between two blood vessels without any intervening capillary network
a communication between two blood vessels without any intervening capillary network
aneurysm
permanent localized dilation of an artery, with an increase in diameter of 1.5 times its normal diameter
permanent localized dilation of an artery, with an increase in diameter of 1.5 times its normal diameter
arteriosclerosis
a disease of the arterial vessels marked by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity in the arterial walls
a disease of the arterial vessels marked by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity in the arterial walls
arteriovenous fistula
communication between an artery and a vein
communication between an artery and a vein
atherosclerosis
condition in which the aortic wall becomes irregular from plaque formation
condition in which the aortic wall becomes irregular from plaque formation
Budd-Chiari syndrome
thrombosis of the hepatic veins
thrombosis of the hepatic veins
cavernous transformation of the portal vein
periportal collateral channels in patients with chronic portal vein obstruction
periportal collateral channels in patients with chronic portal vein obstruction
cystic medial necrosis
weakening of the arterial wall
dissecting aneurysm
tear in the intima and/or media of the abdominal aorta
tear in the intima and/or media of the abdominal aorta
Doppler sample volume
the sonographer selects the exact site to record Doppler signals and sets the sample volume (gate) at this site
the sonographer selects the exact site to record Doppler signals and sets the sample volume (gate) at this site
fusiform aneurysm
circumferential enlargement of a vessel with tapering at both ends
circumferential enlargement of a vessel with tapering at both ends
inferior mesenteric artery (IMA)
arises from the anterior aortic wall at the level of the third or fourth lumbar vertebra to supply the left transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum
arises from the anterior aortic wall at the level of the third or fourth lumbar vertebra to supply the left transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum
inferior mesenteric vein (IMV)
drains the left third of the colon and upper colon and joins the splenic vein
drains the left third of the colon and upper colon and joins the splenic vein
left gastric artery (LGA)
arises from the celiac axis to supply the stomach and lower third of the esophagus
arises from the celiac axis to supply the stomach and lower third of the esophagus
left hepatic artery (LHA)
small branch supplying the caudate and left lobes of the liver
left renal artery (LRA)
arises from the posterolateral wall of the aorta directly into the hilus of the kidney
arises from the posterolateral wall of the aorta directly into the hilus of the kidney
left renal vein
leaves the renal hilum and travels anterior to the aorta and posterior to the superior mesenteric artery to enter the lateral wall of the inferior vena cava
leaves the renal hilum and travels anterior to the aorta and posterior to the superior mesenteric artery to enter the lateral wall of the inferior vena cava
Marfan’s syndrome
hereditary disorder of connective tissue, bones, muscles, ligaments, and skeletal structures
hereditary disorder of connective tissue, bones, muscles, ligaments, and skeletal structures
nonresistive
vessels that have a high diastolic component and supply organs that need constant perfusion (i.e., internal carotid artery, hepatic artery, and renal artery)
portal vein (PV)
formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein near the porta hepatis of the liver
formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein near the porta hepatis of the liver
portal venous hypertension
caused by increased resistance to venous flow through the liver; sonographic findings include dilation of the portal and splenic and mesenteric veins, reversal of portal venous blood flow, and the development of collateral vessels
caused by increased resistance to venous flow through the liver; sonographic findings include dilation of the portal and splenic and mesenteric veins, reversal of portal venous blood flow, and the development of collateral vessels
pseudoaneurysm
pulsatile hematoma that results from leakage of blood into soft tissues abutting the punctured artery with fibrous encapsulation and failure of the vessel wall to heal
pulsatile hematoma that results from leakage of blood into soft tissues abutting the punctured artery with fibrous encapsulation and failure of the vessel wall to heal
resistive
vessels that have little or reversed flow in diastole and that supply organs that do not need a constant blood supply (e.g., external carotid artery, brachial arteries)
resistive index
peak systole minus peak diastole divided by peak systole (S − D/S = RI)
What resistive index means good perfusion? Bad perfusion?
An RI of 0.7 or less indicates good perfusion; an RI of 0.7 or higher indicates decreased perfusion
right gastric artery (RGA)
supplies the stomach
supplies the stomach
right hepatic artery (RHA)
supplies the gallbladder via the cystic artery
right renal artery (RRA)
arises from the posterolateral wall of the aorta and travels posterior to the inferior vena cava to supply the kidney
arises from the posterolateral wall of the aorta and travels posterior to the inferior vena cava to supply the kidney
right renal vein (RRV)
leaves the renal hilum to enter the lateral wall of the inferior vena cava
leaves the renal hilum to enter the lateral wall of the inferior vena cava
saccular aneurysm
localized dilation of the vessel
localized dilation of the vessel
spectral broadening
change in spectral width that increases with flow disturbance
change in spectral width that increases with flow disturbance
splenic artery (SA)
one of the three vessels that arise from the celiac axis to supply the spleen, pancreas, stomach, and greater omentum
one of the three vessels that arise from the celiac axis to supply the spleen, pancreas, stomach, and greater omentum
splenic vein (SV)
drains the spleen; travels horizontally across the abdomen (posterior to the pancreas) to join the superior mesenteric vein to form the portal vein
drains the spleen; travels horizontally across the abdomen (posterior to the pancreas) to join the superior mesenteric vein to form the portal vein
superior mesenteric artery (SMA)
arises inferior to the celiac axis to supply the proximal half of the colon and the small intestine
arises inferior to the celiac axis to supply the proximal half of the colon and the small intestine
superior mesenteric vein (SMV)
drains the proximal half of the colon and small intestine; travels vertically (anterior to the inferior vena cava) to join the splenic vein to form the portal veins
drains the proximal half of the colon and small intestine; travels vertically (anterior to the inferior vena cava) to join the splenic vein to form the portal veins
TIPS
transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt
true aneurysm
permanent dilation of an artery that forms when tensile strength of the arterial wall decreases
permanent dilation of an artery that forms when tensile strength of the arterial wall decreases
tunica adventitia
outer layer of the vascular system; contains the vasa vasorum
outer layer of the vascular system; contains the vasa vasorum
tunica intima
inner layer of the vascular system
inner layer of the vascular system
tunica media
middle layer of the vascular system; veins have thinner tunica media than arteries
middle layer of the vascular system; veins have thinner tunica media than arteries
vasa vasorum
tiny arteries and veins that supply the walls of blood vessels
tiny arteries and veins that supply the walls of blood vessels
What are the Doppler Flow patterns for the Renal Vein?
• Variable flow like IVC
• Evaluate with renal transplants
What are the Doppler Flow patterns for the IVC & Hepatic Vein?
• Vary with respiration
• Flow above and below baseline
• Affected by Rt. atrium contraction
What are the Doppler Flow patterns for the Budd-Chiari Syndrome?
• Thrombosis of hepatic veins
• Hepatic veins are small and echogenic
• Normal flow = No Budd-Chiari
What are the Doppler Flow patterns for the Portal Vein?
• Hepatopetal flow
• Continuous flow pattern; Varies slightly with respirations
What are the Doppler Flow patterns for the Cavernous Transformation of the Portal Vein?
• Complication of chronic portal vein obstruction
• No Extrahepatic portal vein visualized
• Echogenic porta hepatis
• Periportal collaterals
What are the Doppler Flow patterns for Portal Venous Hypertension?
• Hepatopetal vs Hepatofugal
• Low velocity in Portal Vein
• Patent Umbilical Vein (Definitive diagnosis)
• No respiratory variation
What are the Doppler Flow patterns for Renal Artery Stenosis?
• Stenoses difficult to visualize
• Collaterals may form
What are the Doppler Flow patterns for the Renal Hydronephrosis?
Doppler needed to rule out prominent vessels.
What are the Doppler Flow patterns for Renal Transplants?
• Turbulence near anastomosis
• 12% of transplants = renal artery stenosis
• Occlusion easier to diagnose in transplant than in native kidney
What are the Doppler Flow patterns for the Aorta?
• Flow varies at different levels
• Proximal AO has high systolic and low diastolic
• Distal has triphasic flow
What are the Doppler Flow patterns for the Celiac Axis?
• Spectral broadening
• Unchanged after meals
What are the Doppler Flow patterns for the Hepatic Artery?
• Spectral broadening
• Review after heart transplants
What are the Doppler Flow patterns for the Splenic Artery?
• Very turbulent flow
• Very prone to aneurysm
What are the Doppler Flow patterns for the SMA?
• Highly resistive for fasting
• Non resistive for eating
What are the Doppler Flow patterns for the Renal Artery?
• Nonresistive
• Spectral broadening
True or False. Aneurysms smaller than 6 cm have high growth patterns. Those higher than 6 cm has low growth patterns.
False. Aneurysms SMALLER than 6 cm have LOW growth patterns. Those HIGHER than 6 cm has HIGH growth patterns.
What is your survival rate with an aneurysm of less than 6 cm?
75% chance of 1 year survival.
What is your survival rate with an aneurysm of larger than 6 cm?
50% chance of 1 year survival.
What is your survival rate with an aneurysm of larger than 7 cm?
25% chance of 1 year survival.
What is your risk of fatal rupture with an aneurysm larger than 7 cm?
75%
What percent of aneurisms are smaller than 5 cm?
1%
What is the mortality rate of surgery before aneurysm rupture? For surgery after rupture?
5% ; 50%
What are some MOST COMMON features of abdominal aortic aneurisms? List 5
• Most are TRUE aneurysms
• 95% are INFRARENAL
• MURAL thrombus common in large ones
• Mycotic (infection)
• Atherosclerosis


TIMMA !
When should surgery of aneurism be considered?
> 5cm