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59 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
spontaneous generation
the idea that life could arise from nonliving matter
biogenesis
The process in which life forms arise from similar life forms. It asserts that living things can only be produced by another living thing.
homeostasis
the process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
reproduction
the natural process among organisms by which new individuals are generated and the species perpetuated.
evolution
the change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
cell
collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings; basic unit of all forms of life
tissue
group of similar cells that perform a particular function
organism
An individual living thing that can react to stimuli, reproduce, grow, and maintain homeostasis. It can be a virus, bacterium, protist, fungus, plant or an animal.
adaptation
inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival
hypothesis
possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question
variable
factor in an experiment that can change
observation
use of one or more of the senses to gather information
carbohydrate
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body
lipid
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
protein
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes
nucleic acid
macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
composition
in chemistry, the kinds and numbers of atoms constituting a molecule
function
The special, normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part.
covalent bond
bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms
ionic bond
bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
scientific method
1) ask a question
2) form a hypothesis
3) set up a controlled experiment
4) record and analyze results
5) draw a conclusion
chemical reaction
process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
organic
Of, pertaining to, derived from, or similar to an organ of the body.
inorganic
1) Of or pertaining to substances that are not of organic origin.

2) Relating to a substance that does not contain carbon.

3) Of mineral, rather than of biological, origin.
catalyst
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
solute
substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution
solvent
a substance in which a solute is dissolved to form solution
acid
compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
base
compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH+) in solution
salt
The neutral ionic compound formed by chemical combination of acid and base, or through neutralization.
proton
An elementary atomic particle with a positive charge and a mass of about 1 amu.
electron
negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus
neutron
An elementary atomic particle that has no charge and a mass that is approximately the same as that of a proton. Are found in all atoms except the lightest isotopes of hydrogen.
cell theory
1) all living things are composed of cells

2) cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things

3) new cells are produced from existing cells
prokaryote
unicellular organism lacking a nucleus
eukaryote
organism whose cells contain nuclei
cell membrane
thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
cytoplasm
material inside the cell membrane-not including the nucleus
function of the cytoplasm
where the functions for cell expansion, growth, metabolism, and replication are carried out.
nucleus
the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons
function of the nucleus
contains the cell's genetic material (DNA) and controls the cell's activities
nucleolus
small, dense region within most nuclei
function of the nucleolus
where the assembly of proteins begins
ribosome
small particle in a cell and is made up of RNA and protein
function of the ribosome
where proteins are assembled
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified
function of the rough ER
1) where newly made proteins are chemically modified

2) proteins that are released from the cell are synthesized here
function of smooth ER
contains collections of enzymes that perform specialized tasks, including the synthesis if membrane lipids and the detoxification of drugs
Golgi apparatus
stack of membranes in the cell
function of the Golgi apparatus
modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the ER
function of the mitochondria
cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
lysosome
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
function of the lysosomes
1) digest lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell

2) break down organelles that have outlived their usefulness

3) remove the "junk" that might otherwise clutter up the cell
cilia
Microscopic, hair-like projection on the surfaces of some cells and of certain organisms.
flagella
Long, slender, threadlike, whiplike extension of certain cells or unicellular organisms used mainly for movements
cell wall
strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria
chloroplasts
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
vacuole
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
passive transport
movement from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.