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110 Cards in this Set

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What are organelles and structures found only in animal cells?

Centrioles and lysosomes

What are the functions (animal cells) of each?

Centrioles - Aid in cell division


Lysosomes - Digest unwanted materials in a cell

What are organelles and structures found only in plant cells?

Cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplast,

What are the functions of each (organelles and structures from plant cells)?

Cell wall - gives plant squarish shape and protection.


Chloroplast - takes in sunlight and carries out photosynthesis.


Central Vacuole - Allows maximum space, and stores materials for future

What are the cell boundaries?

Cell wall and cytoplasm


What are the limits to cell growth?

The larger the cell gets, the harder it is for needed materials to be transferred around the cell

As a cell increase in size, which increases more rapidly, its surface area or its volume?

Volume

What affect does this have on the cell (volume)?

The harder it is to move materials through the cell


What are chromosomes?

Threadlike structure found in nucleus that contains genetic instructions

What is the cell cycle?

The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and replication

What are the phases in the cell cycle?

Interphase and M Phase

What happens in each (cell cycle)?

Interphase- G1, S Phase (synthesis), G2


M Phase- Mitosis and Cytokinesis

What are the two stages of cell division?

Mitosis and Cytokinesis

What are the four phases of mitosis?

Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

What happens in each (mitosis phases)?

Prophase- Chromatin condenses into chromosomes.The centrioles separate and a spindle begins to form. The nuclear envelope breaks down


Metaphase- The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell.


Microtubules connect the centromere of each chromosome to the poles of the spindle


Anaphase- The sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes.The chromosomes continue to move until they have separated into two groups


Telophase- Chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct shape. A new nuclear envelope forms around each cluster of chromosomes


Which stage is the longest (mitosis stages)?

Prophase


How does cytokinesis differ in plants and animals?

The way the cells separate in plants is using a cell plate but in animal cells it uses a cleavage furrow.

How do molecules cross the cell membrane?

Using diffusion

What is passive transport?

Transportation that does not require energy

What is diffusion?

Something going from higher concentration to a lower concentration.

What is osmosis?

Water moving through semi permeable membrane going higher to lower concentration.

Why do cells not burst under osmotic pressure?

plants have cell walls preventing bursting, others are bathed in isotonic fluids such as blood

What is active transport?

Transportation that requires energy. (ATP)

What is the difference between endocytosis and exocytosis?

Endocytosis is when a cell takes in something while exocytosis is a cell releasing something

What is photosynthesis?

The process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis in plants generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct

What is the equation for photosynthesis?

Equation: 6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2

What is ATP?

Energies currency

How do plants perform photosynthesis?

They use sunlight energy to turn CO2 and water into glucose.

Where does photosynthesis occur in a cell?

Chloroplast


Where do the products of photosynthesis go?

High energy electrons. Everywhere

What are the two reactions of photosynthesis?

Light-dependent reactions trap sunlight energy in chemical form.


Light-independent reactions use that chemical energy to produce stable, high-energy sugars from carbon dioxide and water

What are factors that can influence photosynthesis?

Water


Temperature


Intensity of light


Carbon Dioxide

What is cellular respiration?

Conversion of Glucose into ATP energy


What is the equation for cellular respiration?

C6 H12 + 602-> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy

Where does cellular respiration occur in a cell?

Mitochondria


How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration related?

They are both used for energy production

What is DNA?

Deoxyribonucleic acid is the carrier of genetic information

What is DNA made up of?

Sugar Phosphate backbone, nitrogenous bases

What are the nitrogenous bases?

Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine

What is the difference between pyrimidines and purines?

Pyrimidines are Thymine and Cytosine. Purines are Adenine and Guanine

What are Chargaff’s rules?

That the percentage of Purines to Pyrimidines are equal in any sample of DNA

How did Chargaff determine them?

Took sample of DNA

Who is Rosalind Franklin?

Used X ray diffraction to find structure DNA (that’s what they want you to believe)

Who are Watson and Crick?

Built a model of DNA that explained how DNA carried information and how it was copied

How are the three (watson, crick, and franklin) related to each other?

They were both trying to find the structure of DNA, Watson and Crick used Franklin’s x-rays

What is the structure of a DNA molecule?

Double Helix made up of nucleotides

What is the structure of a chromosome?

Contains DNA which is packed tightly=chromatin DNA is coiled around histones

What happens during the process of DNA replication?

DNA molecules separate into two, then produces two new strands

Can you replicate a strand of DNA?

C and G, A and T

How is DNA extracted?

Burst cells open, separate DNA from protein and debris, and isolate concentrated DNA

What is RNA?

Ribonucleic Acid. Used for transferring DNA

What is RNA made up of?

Nucleotides- Adenine, cytosine, guanine, uracil

What are the differences between RNA and DNA?

Sugar in RNA is ribose instead of deoxyribose


RNA is generally single stranded


RNA has uracil instead of thymine

What are the three types of RNA?

Messenger RNA (mRNA), Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), Transfer RNA (tRNA)

What does each do (RNA types)?

Messenger - carries instructions for assembling amino acids into proteins.


Ribosomal- made up of proteins


Transfer- transfers amino acids to ribosomes

What happens during RNA editing?

RNA molecule is copied from DNA including both intron and extron

What are genes?

Coded DNA instructions that control production of proteins

What are the two processes involved in gene expression?

Transcription and Translation

What are the processes involved in transcription?

RNA Polymerase (enzyme) binds to DNA, separates strand and uses a strand as a template

Can you transcribe a DNA strand?

C and G, TàA, AàU

What are codons?

Three consecutive nucleotides on messenger RNA that specify particular amino acid

What is the start codon?

AUG

Stop Codon

UGA/UAG/UAA

What are the processes involved in translation?

mRNA attaches to ribosome, codons move through Ribosome and tRNA brings the proper amino acid to the ribosome

Can you translate mRNA into a polypeptide?

Codon Chart

What is a polypeptide?

A protein chain of amino acids

What are anticodons?

Three amino acids on transfer RNA

What is meiosis?

It is the process of reducing the number of chromosomes per cell

What is its purpose?(meiosis)

It allows a sexually reproducing organism to produce gametes

What are the stages of meiosis?

Meiosis I: Interphase I, Prophase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I, and Cytokinesis


Meiosis II: Interphase II, Prophase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II, and Cytokinesis

How do they differ from mitosis?(meiosis stages)

Mitosis results in two diploid cells while meiosis results in four haploid cells.


· Cells produced in mitosis have the same number of chromosomes and alleles as the original while meiosis has half the number…


· Mitosis allows an organism to grow and replace cells while meiosis allows a sexually reproducing organism to produce gametes

How are meiosis and genetics related?

Meiosis is also like reproduction

What are alleles?

Different form of genes

What is a heterozygote?

Something that has both dominant and recessive

What is a homozygote?

Has both dominant or both recessive

What is a phenotype?

Physical trait

What is a genotype?

Genetic makeup

What is the P generation?

Parental


What is the F1 generation?


First Filial

What is the F2 generation?

Hybrid, made by crossing two F1

What is the principle of dominance?

Some alleles are dominant and others are recessive

What is the principle of independent assortment?

Genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes

How do you write a genotypic phenotype?

Ex: Albinism


G:1 AA:2Aa:1aa OR 25%AA:50%Aa:25%aa

How do you write a phenotypic phenotype?

Same as genotypic just with actual trait (albino) instead of letters

What is codominance?

Both alleles contribute to the phenotype

How are codominant alleles notated?

C superscript allele(s) C superscript allele(s)

How are codominant heterozygotes different than simple heterozygotes?

Simple heterozygotes take on dominant while codominant mixes both.

How do you write a codominant genotypic ratio?

Same as regular ratio just with the superscript

How do you write a codominant phenotypic ratio?

Same as regular ratio just with the trait

What is incomplete dominance?

One allele is not completely dominant over another.

How are incomplete dominance alleles notated?

They are notated by RR WW RW

How are incompletely dominant heterozygotes different than simple heterozygotes?

It’s the cross in between the homozygous, so red + white=pink

How do you write an incompletely dominant genotypic ratio?

1:2:1 OR 25% BB 50% BW 25% bb

How do you write an incompletely dominant phenotypic ratio?


Same as above with the name of trait

What are multiple alleles?

Genes that are controlled by more than two alleles

How are multiple allele relationships different than simple dominant/recessive?

Genes that are controlled by more than two alleles, individuals cant have more than two alleles but more can exist in a population.

What are sex-linked traits?

Traits that are more likely to be inherited by one sex over another

How are sex-linked alleles notated?

Male XY, Female XX

Why are men more likely to have a sex-linked trait?

They only have one X so whatever their parents had they will most likely have


How do you write a sex-linked trait genotypic ratio?

Same as normal genotypic ratio just using X and Y and whatever alleles they had

How do you write a sex-linked trait phenotypic ratio?

Same as normal phenotypic ratio

What does a pedigree show?

They show the traits passed down through the family and generations. They show the people who had it and the carriers

How are males notated on a pedigree?

They are squares


Females on pedigree?

They are circles

Individuals mating producing offspring?

Lines connecting each other horizontally in between

How are affected individuals notated?

Shaded Fully

How are carriers notated?

Shaded halfway

What are the characteristics of a recessive trait pedigree?

Shows up less frequently


Skips a generation


What are the characteristics of a dominant trait pedigree?

Shows up more frequently


Does not skip a generation


One or more parents has to have it or be a carrier


What are the characteristics of a sex-linked trait pedigree?

Carrier shaded halfway, trait fully shaded