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35 Cards in this Set

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Mathias Schleiden
A botanist who helped to discover the cell theory.
Theodor Schwann
A zoologist who helped to discover the cell theory.
Rudolph Virchow
A physician who helped to discover the cell theory.
Robert Hooke
The first person to ever see/discover cells.
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
Discovered single cell organisms.
Used the first microscope.
Mitochondria
The site of cellular respiration and ATP production. In electron micrographs, they are oval shaped.
Golgi Apparatus
Helps synthesize, store, sort, and secrete various chemicals/ packaging and processing of proteins usually made by rough ER
Lysosomes
Enzyme filled organelle that helps to metabolize; contain digestive enzymes. Typically very dark in electron micrographs.
Free Ribosomes
The site of protein synthesis.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
A ribosome lined membrane that helps makes protein and other membranes; area for synthesis of proteins that will be secreted
Nuclear Membrane
double membrane surrounding nucleus; selectively permeable
Chromatin
stores the DNA and chromosomes
Nucleolus
helps produce ribosomes and RNA (no DNA)
Nucleus
holds chromosomes, control center; made of nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus
Centrioles
used in mitosis, provide spindle fibers and help the cell to divide
Passive Transport
Movement down the concentration gradient resulting from random molecular collisions; does not require energy
Diffusion
net movement of a substance down a concentration gradient (from an area of high concentration to low concentration); continues until dynamic equilibrium is reached
Osmosis
the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion of solutes across a membrane with the help of transport proteins; does not require energy
Active Transport
energy-requiring process during which a transport protein pumps a molecule across a membrane; used to help maintain high concentrations, energy comes from ATP
Endocytosis
Process of importing macromolecules into a cell by forming vesicles derived from the plasma membrane; the membrane sinks inward and pinches off into the cytoplasm
Pinocytosis
cell drinking; the intake of fluid droplets via small vesicles
Phagocytosis
cell eating; endocytosis of solid particles using a pseudopodia and pinches off a food vacuole
Exocytosis
process of exporting macromolecules from a cell by fusion of vesicles w/the plasma membrane; used to export products
Hypertonic Solution
a solution with more solute concentration than that inside a cell; cell will shrivel because of osmosis
Hypotonic Solution
Solution with a lower solute concentration than inside a cell, cell will lyse and explode
Isotonic Solution
a solution with an equal solute concentration compared to the inside of the cell
Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
1. Prokaryotes have naked DNA, eukaryotes have chromosomes
2.prokaryotes don't have mitochondria
3.prokaryotes have size 70s ribosomes, eukaryotes have 80s
4. prokaryotes have little to no organelles
Differences between plant and animal cells
1. Plant cells have a cell wall, animal cells have a membrane
2. Plant cells have chloroplast and large central vacuoles, animas don't
3. animals use glycogen, plants use strach
diploid
having two sets of chromosomes
Monoploid (haploid)
a sperm or an egg cell with only one copy of each chromosome
Autosome
a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
Somatic
A normal cell, not a sex cell
Gamete
A sex cell
5 Most Common Elements in Living Things
1. Carbon 2. Carbon 3. Hydrogen 4. Nitrogen 5. Sulfur