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87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Formula for hydroxyl group
-OH
Formula for carbonyl group
-C=O
Formula for carboxyl group
C=O
-H
c double bond o single bond h
Formula for Amino group
NH2
Formula for sulfhydryl group
-SH
Formula for phosphate group
P bonded to four O double bonded to one
How many functional groups are there?
6
alcohols
molecules that have OH functional groups
aldehyde
carbonyl group at the end of chain
ketone
carbonyl group somewhere in the middle
carboxylic acids
molecules that contain carboxyl group
What functional group is a source of H+
carboxyl
Amines
molecules with an amino group
Amino groups act as a
base or acid?
base
thiols
molecules that have sulfhydryl group, important for stabilizing proteins
How many phosphates does ATP have?
3
isomers
same molecular formula but different structures and properties
structural isomers
different covalent arrangement
geometric isomers
same formula and covalent arrrangement but differ in spacial arrangement around double bond
enantiomers
mere images of eachother but can never be the same. left and right glove
L or R amino acids occur in nature?
L
polymers
chains of monomers
dehydration reaction
taking out water to put two monomers together
hydrolysis-
adding water to breakdown polymer into its monomers
function of carbohydrates
used for energy
What are monomers of carbs?
monosaccharides
disaccharides
two monomers put together by glycosidic linkage
glycosidic linkage
linkage that joins two monosaccharides together
polysaccharide used for storage in plants?
starch
polysaccharide used for storage in animals?
glycogen
polysaccharide used for structure in plants?
cellulose
polysaccharide used for structure in animals?
chitin
what are the 4 types of macromolecules?
carbohydrate, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
What do lipids consist of?
hydrocarbons with non-polar bonds
what do fats consist of?
glycerol and fatty acids
what do fatty acids consist of?
carbon chain and carboxyl group
ester linkage
carboxyl group bonded with hydrogen of (OH)
saturated fatty acid
no double bonds
unsaturated fatty acids
have double bonds
what makes up phospholipids
lipi with phosphate group
phosphate head is hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
hydrophilic
What macromolecule group does steroids belong to?
lipids
Proteins are made of _____?
amino acids
what functional groups are in proteins?
carboxyl and amino
What do all amino acids have?
alpha carbon
carboxyl group
amino group
sidechain
How many amino acids are there?
20
nonpolar= hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
hydrophobic
If R group has a negative charge is is basic or acidic?
acidic
Peptide bonds
bonds that link amino acids
Where do peptide bonds form?
Between C and N
Primary structure
sequence of amino acids
secondary structure
regions of coiling or folding
what causes coiling or folding in proteins?
hydrogen bonds on backbone
tertiary structure
irregular shape changes
what causes tertiary structure?
interactions of side chains
hydrophoblic interactions
molecules in middle trying to get away
-ex. van der waals interactions
quarternary structure
interactions between subunits
-> helix or clumped
denaturation
changing the conformation of structure due to temp or PH
Function of nucleic acids
carry genetic information
What are the 3 parts of a nucelotide?
pentose sugar
phosphate group
nitrogeneous base
phosphodiester linkage
nucelotides joined together
selective permeability
membrane can control what goes in and out of a cell
can phospholipids switch vertically?
no
protype
mammal from which all other mammals descended
evolution
process of change that has transformed life on earth
emergent properties
new properties that arise with each step up in the hierarchy of life
hierarchy
atoms, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, population, community, ecosystems
phylogeny
evolutionary relationships
what did carl con linne do?
he did a lot of collecting. He wanted to give a name to all organisms known to man
Do you capitalize genus?
yes
Do you capitalize species?
no
What did aristotle do?
tried to arrange all living things from simple to complex.
What do judeo-christians believe?
they believe each species was crated individually by God
catasrophism
extinctions caused by catastrophes
What did jean baptiste lamarck realize?
that fossils were in a cronological sequence.
spontaneous generation
living organisms from nonliving material
mechanisms for natural selection by lamarck
1: use and disuse
2: inheritance of acquired characteristics
Uniformitarianism
changes on earth happen slowly overtime
evolution
change over time in genetic composition of popukation
covalent bonds
sharing electrons
properties of water (6)
1: cohesive
2: surface tension
3: high specific heat
4: high heat of vaporization
5: expands when freezes
6: excellent solvent
what is high specific heat?
amount of heat is takes to change temp by 1 degree celcius
What is high heat of vaporization?
heat needed for 1g of liquid to turn into a gas
What is the order or hierarchal system?
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
KPCOFGS
What were darwins 3 observations?
1: variation
2: variation must be heritable
3: more offspring than can survive
What are some sources of evidence for evolution?
fossil record, biogeography, comparative anatomy,
biogeography
study of distribution of species