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171 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference.
Active Transport
One of a number of different forms of a gene.
Allele
Compound with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end. monomers of protein.
Amino Acid
the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move towards the opposite poles.
Anaphase
flowering plant; bears its seeds within a layer of tissue that protects the seed.
Angiospore
flower structure in which haploid male gametophytes are produced.
Anther
front
anterior
kingdom of unicellular prokaryotes whose cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan. have unusual lipids, genes are arranged more like eukaryotes, live in extreme conditions.
archaebacteria
process by which a single parent reproduces by itself.
asexual reproduction
chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
autosome
principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine.
base pairing
body plan in which only a single, imaginary line can divide the body into two equal halves; characteristics of worms, anthropods, and chordates.
bilateral symmetry
type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells.
binary fission
classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name.
Binomial Nomenclature
process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and form one part of the biosphere to another.
Biogeochemical Cycle
group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities.
biome
part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere.
Biosphere
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body
carbohydrate
Photo-takes in carbon from air and makes it available to animals
Cell. Resp.-returns the carbon back to the air
Decomposer-some carbon is put into the soil
Human Activities-burn fossil fuels and releases carbon into the air.
Carbon Cycle
series of events cells go through as they grow ad divide.
Cell Cycle
cells are going to do different things
cell differentiation
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells.
cell theory
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
Cellular respiration
concentration of sense organ and nerve cells at the front of an animal’s body.(having a head)
cephalization
organelle found in the cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.
chloroplasts
member of the phylum Chordata; animal that has, for at least some stage in life, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, a notochord, pharyngeal pouches, and a muscular tail.
chordate
threadlike structure inside the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next.
chromosome
short hairlike projections similar to a flagellum; produces movement in many cells.
cilia
group of similar orders
class
symbiotic relationship in which one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed.
commensalism
cavity in the cytoplasm of some protests that collects water and discharges it from the cell.
contractile vacuole
taking pollen from one plant and putting it on a different plant.
cross pollination
protective structure formed by protists
cyst
division of the cytoplasm during cell division
cytokinesis
material inside the cell membrane- not including the nucleus.
cytoplasm
network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement.
cytoskeleton
term used to refer to a tree that sheds its leaves during a particular season each year.
deciduous
organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter.
decomposer
organism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter.
detritivore
angiosperm whose seeds have two cotyledons.
dicot
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated.
diffusion
term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes.
diploid
two sugars chemically bonded
disaccharide
helicase unzips it and DNA polymerase rebuilds it
DNA Replication
period of time during which a plant embryo is alive but not growing.
dormancy
top
dorsal
scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment.
ecology
collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment.
ecosystem
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane.
endocytosis
internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled and some proteins are modified.
endoplasmic reticulum
structural support located inside the body of an animal
endoskeleton
type of spore formed when a bacterium produces a thick internal wall that encloses its DNA and a portion of its cytoplasm.
endospore
protein that acts as a biological catalyst
enzyme
plant that is not rooted in soil but instead grows directly on the body of another plant.
epiphyte
when the concentration of a solute is the same throughout a solution.
equilibrium
wetlands formed where rivers meet the ocean.
estuary
kingdom of unicellular prokaryotes whose cell walls are made up of peptidoglycan.
eubacteria
process by which a cell releases large amounts of material.
exocytosis
external skeleton; tough external covering that protects and supports the body of many invertebrates.
exoskeleton
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels.
facilitated diffusion
group of genera that share many characteristics.
family
aids in movement in bacteria
flagella
food chainseries of steps in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
food chain
network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem.
food web
kingdom composed of heterotrophs; many obtain energy and nutrients from dead organic matter.
fungi
specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction.
gamete
group of closely related species, and the first part of the scientific name in binomial nomenclature.
genus
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum.
golgi apparatus
natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth’s atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases.
greenhouse effect
father of genetics
gregor mendel
seed plant that bears its seeds directly on the surface of cones.
gymnospore
term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes.
haploid
passing of traits
heredity
individual that has both male and female reproductive organs.
hermaphrodite
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment.
homeostasis
term used to refer to chromosomes that each has a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent.
homologous chromosome
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes.
hypertonic
tiny filaments that makes up a multicellular fungus or a water mold.
hyphae
possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question.
hypothesis
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes.
hypotonic
compounds without carbon bonds traditionally non-life
inorganic
outer covering of an animal
integument
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
interphase
animal that does not have a backbone, or vertebral column.
invertebrate
when the concentration of two solutions is the same.
isotonic
large taxonomic group, consisting of closely related phyla.
kingdom
immature stage of an organism that looks different from the adult form.
larva
symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism.
lichen
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes.(cell membranes, cushion, energy source)
lipid
virus inbeds its DNA into ours, replicates, then goes through lytic cycle
lysogenic cycle
cell organelle filled with enzymes need to break down certain materials in the cell.
lysosome
process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.
meiosis
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes.
metabolism
second stage of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
metaphase
a type of archaebacteria
methanogen
periodic movement and return of animals from one place to another.
migration
cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use.
mitochondrion
part of eukaryotic cell division during which the nucleus divides.
mitosis
angiosperm whose seeds have one cotyledon.
monocot
small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers.
monomer
single sugar molecule
monosaccharide
(messenger RNA) RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell.
mRNA
three or more alleles for the same trait.
multiple allele trait
change in a DNA sequence affects genetic information
mutation
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship.
mutualism
many hyphae tangled together into a thick mass; comprises the bodies of multicellular fungi.
Mycelium
process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest.
Natural selection
cell that carries messages throughout the nervous system.
neuron
full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions.
niche
a->t g->c
nitrogen base
process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia
nitrogen fixation
plant that lacks vascular tissue
nonvascular plant
group of similar families.
order
group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions.
organ
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function.
organ system
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell
organelle
compounds with carbon bonds, traditionally from life
organic
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
osmosis
symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives I or on another organism (the host) and consequently harms it.
parasitism
transport of a substance across the cell membrane without the use of energy.
passive transport
studies of disease causing agents
pathology
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell.
phagocytosis
vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis.
phloem
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygeb and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.
photosynthesis
group of closely related class.
phylum
process by which a cell takes in liquid through the surrounding environment.
pinocytosis
female reproductive part of a plant
pistil
tiny, free-floating organisms that occur in aquatic environments.
plankton
transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structure to the female reproductive structure.
pollination
trait controlled by two or more genes.
polygenic trait
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers.
polymer
large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides.
polysaccharide
back
posterior
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus.
prophase
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen; need by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes.
protein
process in which proteins are made
protein synthesis
any eukaryote that is not a plant, animal, or fungus.
protist
temporary projection of cytoplasm, or a “false foot,” used by some protists for feeding or movement.
pseudopod
animal-like protists
protozoa
body plan in which body parts repeat around the center of the body, characteristics of sea anemones and sea stars.
radial symmetry
small particle in which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein.
ribosome
type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes.
rRNA
lives off dead decaying things
saprophyte
plant that seeds
seed plant
only certain things can pass through the membrane
selectivley permeable
it pollinates itself
self-pollination
one of two chromosomes that determine an individual’s sex.
sex chromosome
gene located on the X or Y chromosome.
sex-linked trait
process by which cells from two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism.
sexual reproduction
group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.
species
male part of the flower, made up of an anther and a filament.
stamen
relationship in which two species live closely together.
symbiosis
discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name.
taxonomy
fourth and final stage of mitosis, during which the chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material.
telophase
group of similar cells that perform a particular function.
tissue
specific characteristic that varies from one individual to the another.
trait
DNA to RNA
transcription
mRNA into amino acids.
translation
loss of water from a plant through its leaves.
transpiration
type of RNA that transfers amino acids to ribosomesduring protein synthesis.
tRNA
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates.
vacuole
plant that has vascular tissue
vascular plant
bottom
ventral
animal that has a vertebral column, or backbone.
vertebrate
study of viruses
virology
same thing as lytic cycle
virulent
evaporation > condensation > precipitation > runoff > seepage > root uptake > transpiration+evaporation >>
water cycle
vascular tissue that carries water.
xylem
fertilized egg.
zygote
bacteria-1) decompose plants and animals returning nitrogen to soil
2)nitrogen fixation-makes it available to plants
3) dinitrification- some bacteria break down nitrogen compounds in soil and return it to the air
Plants- make it available to animals
animals-take nitrogen from plants and animals and return nitrogen to the soil after death during decomposition. Some nitrogen is returned through waste . we use nitrogen to make protein
nitrogen cycle
1)state question
2)research
3)make hypothesis
4)experiment
5)collect data
6)analyze the data
7)make a conclusion
scientific method