Temperament Essay

727 Words Apr 21st, 2012 3 Pages
Temperament: behavioral styles that are fairly stable across situations and are biologically based

Infant Temperament

Thomas and Chess: Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas conducted pioneering longitudinal research on infant temperament.
3 patterns (based on parents reports) * easy babies (40%) adjust readily to new experiences, quickly established routines, and generally were cheerful in mood and easy to calm * difficult babies (10%) adjust to new experiences, likely to reac negatively and intensely to stimuli and events, and irregular in their bodily functions * slow-to-warm-up (15%) somewhat difficult at first but easier over time
***other infants don’t fit into these categories***

* Temperament is moderately
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* Harry Harlow concluded it was “contact comfort” not feeding that played a role in attachment (cloth mother vs. wire mother for baby monkeys experiment) * Bowlby’s four phases
Attachment and Ethological Theory * Ethological theorists view attachment as an innate, adaptive phenomenon that promotes proximity between infant and caregiver, and ensures the infant’s survival. * Separation Anxiety * Distress the infant shows when the caregiver leaves the immediate environment * Reunion * The child’s style of greeting the caregiver after a separation * Stranger an * Fear or distress an infant shows at the approach of an unfamiliar person
Bowlby and Ainsworth
Secure Base is Bowlby’s term for an attachment figure’s presence that * Provides an infant or toddler with a sence of security that makes it possible for the infant to explore the environment * Mary Ainsworth , Bowlby’s stuent extended the ideas and designed the experiment
Bowlby’s Four Phases of Attachment:
Pre-attachment Phase (birth-6 weeks)
The infant produces innate signals that bring others to his/her side and is comforted by the interaction that follows


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