Shaping and Chaining, Reinforcement Schedules and One-Trial Learning
Option 2:Psychology Literature Review
Environmental and Evolutionary
Teaching new tasks to organisms can be a difficult process for any individual to undertake. Psychologists, parents, teachers, and a wealth of other individuals attempt to teach new tasks through a variety of methods such as by shaping the new desired task, through reinforcement of it, or even through one-trail learning. The different methods that are used each have their benefits depending on what a person is attempting to teach and can be better suited for different tasks dependent on what the tasks are. The paper is going to cover the concepts of shaping and chaining, …show more content…
In chaining one response leads to the occurrence of another response (Mackie, n.d.). Chaining is much like the name sounds and a chain of responses that lead from one to another occurring in a sequence or a chain and lead up to the bigger complex response. Whereas in shaping each step is broken down until the organism works up to the desired behavior in chaining there are multiple steps linked together. The rat that presses the button may be lead to the button in chaining to begin with as one step instead of multiple steps like it is in shaping.
Reinforcement schedules according to Schunk (2012), are ways which rewards are given but are in a structured manner. This structure provides when each reward should be given to the organism whose behavior is being changed or while learning a new thing. There are different levels of structure including continuous, intermittent, interval, fixed-interval, variable-interval, ratio, variable-ratio, and fixed-ratio (Schunk, 2012). Basically the rewards given to the rat learning to press the button can be continuous rewards happening with each response, intermittently with only some responses, in interval with only correct responses, or ratio with a specific rate of responding. The reward structure could fluctuate among the main reward structures to whatever the researcher wants or what they believe is working best. If a