My Career Essay
Career theory has begun since the early 20th century. As the changing nature of world, career theory experiences major transition from time to time to achieve an applicable theory. This essay will discuss and analyse the literature about career theory in the early 21st Century.
Sonnenfeld (1982) has described career theory as theory which attempts to explain occupational variables such as type of job and income or psychological variables such as job satisfaction and job-related stress. Career development began from Frank Parsons’ work where he predicts a person’s career choices from the his characteristics, including …show more content…
The focus of vocational psychology had shifted in the second half of the 20th century due to the massive waves of redundancies and restructuring. Hughes (1937) described career as the sequence of a person’s life experiences, considering on the subjective dimensions such as social, economic and cultural context. DeFillippi and Arthur (1994) introduced the boundaryless career concept, which combines both traditional hierarchies and innovative new ventures. Hassard (2012) stated that the concept of secure jobs have diminished, instead employers help employees to improve their working competence and experience (Baruch, 2006). However, the ‘insecurity paradox’ has increased female participation in workforce in short term careers as women have a history of discontinuous careers (Hassard, 2012). Later, ‘intelligent career’ was introduced where people will decide for their career rather than letting the organization decide for them as they experience emotional struggle during transitions (Goleman, 1995). Hall and Mirvis (1996) had also came out with ‘Protean Career’ where it is described as the contract within oneself, rather than between oneself and the organization. Therefore, career and life success are defined and formed by individuals. Unlike the traditional career approach, contemporary